Legally, all medicines (including vaccines) in the UK must be tested on animals before they are deemed safe for human use; either by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA), which covers most European countries, including the UK. Furthermore, many vaccines are produced using animal-based systems (eg eggs, cell cultures and serum) and most contain ingredients derived from animals.
On the other hand, vaccines are an effective way to prevent infectious diseases and have been pivotal in reducing the incidence of polio, tetanus, whooping cough and measles. They prevent a huge burden of disease and death in the world. If we didn’t have vaccines, even more medication would be required to treat the increased number of people suffering with infectious diseases. By reducing the need for antibiotics, they may also help combat the development of antibiotic-resistant superbugs.