The results from the lung cancer section of the EPIC study examining the link between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer showed that regular fruit and vegetable intake reduces the risk of lung cancer in both non-smokers and smokers (Büchner et al., 2010a). When the smokers’ data were analysed further, the scientists found out that an increased variety in fruit and vegetable consumption decreases lung cancer risk further (Büchner et al., 2010b).
Hosseini et al. (2014) performed a study of 242 lung cancer patients and compared their health and lifestyle to a large control group of age and sex matched healthy people. In the analysis of their diets, they found out that fruit, vegetable and vegetable oil consumption was linked to lower risk of lung cancer, whilst diets containing red meat, liver, animal fats, cheese and refined cereals was associated with a higher risk.
And another remarkable review study shows that compounds found in cruciferous vegetables (eg Brussels sprouts, broccoli and kale) may protect against lung cancer (Lam et al., 2009). This review of 30 studies found that the risk for lung cancer was around 20 per cent lower in those who ate the most cruciferous vegetables compared to those consuming the least.